A Concerted Drive to Develop Culture

—An Interview with the Officials from Five Ministries and Commissions by Qiushi Journal Reporters Sun Min and Sun Yuhua

From: English Edition of Qiushi Journal Updated: 2012-10-08 14:36
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The development of culture in China has flourished in recent years owing to the strong policy support that the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the People’s Bank of China, the Ministry of Commerce, and the Ministry of Science and Technology have shown for the reform of the cultural system. But how has this concerto of cultural development been achieved? With a view to answering this question, we have interviewed the officials in each of these ministries and the commission.

Reporter: What major policies and measures have been adopted in recent years for the reform of the cultural system?

Zhu Zhixin (Vice Chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission): The policies and measures taken by the National Development and Reform Commission include the following: First, we have organized and implemented a number of key cultural projects for public benefit. These include access to radio and television services in all villages, the screening of films in rural areas, the construction of comprehensive cultural stations in towns and townships, the translation of radio and TV programs into ethnic minority languages, the production of radio and TV programs in ethnic minority languages, the development of publishing in ethnic minority languages, and the protection of cultural and natural heritage sites. We have promoted the construction of key cultural venues such as the National Center for the Performing Arts, the National Library of China, the National Museum of China, and the National Theatre of China. At the same time, we have taken the lead in organizing the implementation of an outline plan for the development of tourism themed around the history of the CPC, and provided support for the development of basic facilities in the most iconic sites in the CPC’s history. Second, having been actively involved in the formulation of policy documents such as A Number of Decisions Regarding Investment of Non-public Capital in Cultural Industries, we have identified the relevant cultural industries as encouraged sectors in the Guiding Catalogue for Industrial Restructuring, and taken steps to implement the corresponding industrial policies. In addition, we have encouraged eligible cultural enterprises to issue corporate bonds or go public; actively promoted the establishment of the China Cultural Industries Investment Fund Management Co., Ltd.; revamped the mode by which the government supports the screening of films in rural areas; provided support for market entities involved in the screening of films in rural areas; and worked with the relevant departments in expanding consumer credit and standardizing market prices on the basis of having identified the encouragement of cultural consumption as an important means of boosting domestic demand.

Guests of honor cut the ribbon at the opening ceremony of the National Museum of China in Beijing on March 1, 2012. The renovation and expansion of the National Museum is a landmark project in China’s cultural development and a major national scheme for the benefit of the general public. Since its trial launch a year ago on March 1, 2011, the National Museum has held more than 50 exhibitions and offered free admission to over 4.1 million domestic and foreign visitors. / Photo by Xinhua reporter Wang Yongji

Zhang Shaochun (Vice Minister of Finance of China): The policies and measures adopted by the Ministry of Finance include the following: First, we have sustained the rapid growth of government spending in culture, ensuring sufficient funding for key cultural fields. Total public spending in culture, sport, and media grew from 59.7 billion yuan in 2005 to 154.3 billion yuan in 2010, representing an average growth rate of 20.9% per year. Of this total, central government spending in culture, sport, and media grew from 10.2 billion yuan in 2005 to 31.6 billion yuan in 2010, representing an increase of 25.4% per year on average. At the same time, efforts have also been made to optimize the structure of public spending in culture, with central government spending in culture being tilted towards rural areas, local communities, and non-profit cultural programs in order to support the development of a public service system for culture that covers both urban and rural areas and caters to the basic cultural needs of the general public. During the period of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006-2010), the central government allocated a total of 23.7 billion yuan for the funding of cultural initiatives in rural areas. Funding in 2010 alone reached 7.4 billion yuan, representing a 31.3-fold increase over the total in 2005. In addition, funding from the central government for the development of culture in central and western regions totaled at 31.8 billion yuan for the same period. Of this total, 10.3 billion yuan was allocated in 2010, representing an 8.4-fold increase over 2005. Second, we have made constant changes to the ways in which government funds are invested in culture, and these efforts have been remarkably effective in boosting the role that government funds play in guiding and promoting investment. In line with the characteristics and laws of cultural development, the Ministry of Finance has worked hard to explore new ways of supporting non-profit cultural programs and commercial cultural industries with government funds. We have constantly enhanced the effectiveness of central government spending, and boosted the role that it plays in stimulating and guiding investment from other sources. By doing so, we have been able to encourage local governments and other sectors of society to actively invest in culture. Third, we have progressively fine-tuned economic policies pertaining to culture, which has been remarkably effective in promoting the reform of the cultural system. Active efforts have been made to formulate supporting policies for the reform of the cultural system. These policies, which provide incentives in regard to public finance, taxation, investment and financing, asset management, income distribution, social safety nets, and the relocation and placement of personnel, have been effective in ensuring the smooth progression of reforms. We have also extended continued support to government institutions that have been restructured as companies in an effort to mitigate the impact that reform has had on their operations. The development of cultural industries has been supported. By 2011 the central government had earmarked an accumulative total of 6.2 billion yuan for the development of cultural industries. These funds have primarily been used to support the development of government institutions that have been restructured as cultural companies and the fostering of backbone cultural enterprises, as well as the export of cultural products and services. At the same time, by providing tax incentives to cultural enterprises engaged in the film, animation, news, publishing, and distribution industries, we have encouraged cultural enterprises to engage in international competition and technical innovation, so as to increase the overall strength and competitiveness of China’s cultural industries. We have improved taxation policies aimed at supporting the development of cultural programs for public welfare. The measures we have taken in this regard include encouraging enterprises and individuals to make donations to non-profit cultural programs, and exempting ticket sales in memorial halls, museums, art galleries, and other public cultural facilities from business tax. In an effort to widen channels for the funding of cultural initiatives, we have not only continued to levy development fees for cultural undertakings and special funds for the development of Chinese filmmaking, but also allocated a larger share of lottery ticket proceeds to cultural initiatives.  

Liu Shiyu (Deputy Governor of the People’s Bank of China): The policies and measures that have been adopted by the People’s Bank of China include the following: First, we have introduced financial supporting policies for the development of culture. In March 2010, the Guidelines on Providing Financial Support for the Invigoration, Development, and Prosperity of Cultural Industries was jointly published by nine departments, including the Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee and the People’s Bank of China. According to the guidelines, financial institutions are required to actively develop credit products that are tailored to cultural industries, such as capital leasing and the pledging of intangible assets; establish and develop a mode for the provision of credit and a mechanism for determining interest rates; and set rational terms and interest rates for loans granted to companies in cultural industries. In addition, the Guidelines prescribes for the building of a multi-tiered capital market for the direct financing of cultural enterprises on a larger scale; the active development of an insurance market for cultural industries; and the establishment of a multi-level supporting mechanism that covers fiscal support, financing guarantees, and IPR protection. Second, the various local branches of the People’s Bank have taken concrete measures to implement the aforementioned policies in line with conditions in their various areas of jurisdiction. Working in close coordination with local publicity and cultural departments, the branches of the People’s Bank of China have taken prompt measures to ensure that policies are fully implemented and that the desired effects are achieved. Third, we have taken active steps to provide a diverse range of direct financing options for cultural enterprises. With a view to providing more options for the direct financing of cultural enterprises, we have devoted major efforts to developing the inter-bank bond market, designing new financial products, and establishing new guarantee mechanisms so that cultural enterprises may issue more debt financing instruments in the inter-bank bond market, such as short-term financing bonds, medium-term notes, and collective notes for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In addition, we have utilized the role of credit rating agencies, credit promotion agencies, and other intermediary organizations in order to facilitate the direct financing of SMEs in culture that conform to requirements prescribed in national policies. Fourth, we have encouraged financial institutions to strengthen and improve the financial services that they provide to cultural enterprises. Financial institutions have been encouraged to develop a diverse and multi-tiered portfolio of innovative credit products to support cultural enterprises, experiment with a variety of loan types that are tailored to projects in cultural industries, and offer enhanced support to key cultural industry parks and key cultural enterprises.

Qiu Hong (Assistant Minister of Commerce): The measures taken by the Ministry of Commerce include the following: First, we have established a framework of policies to support the development of culture. In November 2006, the Ministry of Commerce joined the relevant government departments in formulating the Directory on the Export of Cultural Goods and Services and the Guidelines on Financial Support for Cultural Exports. In February 2010, the Ministry collaborated with 10 other government departments in jointly issuing the Guidelines on Further Promoting Relevant Work on the Catalogue of Key Enterprises and Projects of the State for Cultural Export. In association with 33 government departments, the Ministry of Commerce issued the Outlines for the Development of Service Trade During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan in 2011, which identified literature and arts, radio, film, and television, and press and publication as key sectors for commercial departments to promote the development of trade in services during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan. Second, we have strengthened our coordination with other departments and established sound working mechanisms for inter-departmental collaboration. In October 2010, the Ministry of Commerce took the lead in the establishment of an inter-departmental mechanism for coordination between 13 departments in initiatives regarding key enterprises and projects for cultural export. This mechanism has strengthened coordination between departments in the effort to promote trade in culture and cultural exports. Third, we have supported key cultural enterprises and projects. In accordance with the Directory on the Export of Cultural Goods and Services, the Ministry of Commerce meets with the relevant departments once every two years to identify key national enterprises and projects for cultural export. Eligible cultural export enterprises and overseas investment projects are granted priority support. Fourth, we have established a statistical system for cultural trade. Making use of existing channels for data in regard to service and goods trading, the Ministry of Commerce has designed a statistical system for data on the import and export of core cultural products and services in reference to UNESCO delineations. Fifth, we have built a stronger framework for the promotion of cultural exports. We have published information on China’s cultural products and service exports by making full use of the “China Trade in Services” website, ascertained the difficulties that cultural exporters have encountered in the development of global markets, and supported efforts to spread Chinese culture global. 

Cao Jianlin (Vice Minister of Science and Technology): Responding to trends in the application of digital technology in cultural spheres, the Ministry of Science and Technology has stepped up its efforts in the R&D of key technologies pertaining to digital media and content, and enhanced its efforts to promote innovation in regard to digital cultural products and service modes. With regard to core technologies and services pertaining to next generation networks, we have enhanced our R&D in key technologies and systems, such as high-performance broadband information networks and wireless technologies, and stepped up our efforts in the research and development of security technologies for the building of healthy network environments. We have devoted greater efforts to the research and development of key technologies and hardware pertaining to new types of cinema, digital film and entertainment equipment, portable sound systems, mobile performance systems, multi-functional integrated audio products, and environmentally-friendly printing. In addition, we have also stepped up our efforts to research and develop new technologies and products in regard to publishing and content display, such as multimedia print readers, e-books, mobile newspapers, online publications, and laser displays. In the modern service trade category under the National Key Technology R&D Program, the Ministry of Science and Technology has further increased the support it provides to projects that aim to underpin the development of cultural industries. At present, a total of 7 projects have been launched under this initiative. With respect to promoting the integrated application of advanced technologies in cultural spheres, we have bolstered the supporting role that science and technology play in cultural initiatives through a series of major projects, such as “Research into Key Techniques for the Protection of Cultural Heritage,” “The Project to Trace the Origins of Chinese Civilization,” “Research and Development of Key Techniques for the Protection of Major Ruins,” “Techniques for the Protection of Old Buildings and the Scientific Development of Traditional Craftwork,” and “The Study on Key Technologies for the Protection of Stone Relics.” With regard to fostering innovation milieu in which culture, science, and technology are closely integrated, the Ministry of Science and Technology has strengthened the development of cultural creative industry clusters in industrial parks and centers such as national high-tech development zones and national centers for the industrialized development of modern services. The Ministry of Science and Technology has also established an inter-ministerial consultation mechanism to promote exchanges in this regard. 

Reporter: What positive effects have these policies and measures created?

Zhu Zhixin: On the one hand, public cultural facilities have been continuously improved in both urban and rural areas, and this has given us a stronger foundation to work from in ensuring people’s basic cultural rights, which include having access to television, radio, books, and newspapers, engaging in public cultural appreciation, and participating in public cultural activities. Thanks to direct satellite broadcasts, all villages with electricity and at least 20 households are now able to receive more than 40 radio and television channels. Almost all administrative villages have fulfilled the target of showing one free film per month. Comprehensive cultural stations boasting complete facilities and functions have been established in towns and townships. A number of key national cultural facilities that demonstrate China’s level of cultural attainment and a number of specialist museums at the provincial level have been opened. With gradual development of a network of public cultural facilities, the general public now has access to a much wider variety of basic cultural products and services. We have seen a surge in the development of tourism themed around the history of the CPC, with such activities becoming a much-loved way of learning about patriotism and China’s revolutionary traditions. On the other hand, the overall scale and strength of the cultural industry has grown rapidly. In 2010, the corporate sector of China’s cultural industry realized an added value of 1.1052 trillion yuan, accounting for 2.78% of the GDP. A total of 31 cultural enterprises have been publicly listed in the A-share market of the Chinese mainland and on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Public listing has helped to boost the competitiveness of large-scale cultural enterprises in China. With the progressive relaxation of restrictions on the entry of non-public capital into cultural industries, China now has more than 7,000 privately-operated theater troupes and more than 320,000 privately-operated publishing, distributing, printing and duplication enterprises. This has led to the initial formation of a structure for the cultural industry in which public ownership plays the dominant role while multiple forms of ownership develop side by side. Conditions for cultural consumption have been further improved, and fine habits in cultural consumption are becoming increasingly prevalent among the public, thereby promoting the increasing prosperity of cultural markets.

Liu Shiyu: First, the level of support provided to culture by finance has been notably increased. According to initial figures, by the end of 2011, the balance of medium and long-term loans provided by the major financial institutions to the culture, sport, and entertainment sectors was 86.1 billion yuan. This represents a 240% increase over the total balance in 2008. Second, an organizational system for the provision of financial services to cultural initiatives has gradually been developed. Third, the range of credit products tailored to the needs of cultural enterprises has been constantly expanded. Fourth, channels for the financing of the cultural industry have become increasingly diverse. By the end of 2011, a total of 98 short-term financing bonds had been issued by 39 cultural enterprises, while 43 medium-term notes had been issued by 24 enterprises, representing a total of 125 billion yuan in funds raised.

Qiu Hong: During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, China’s import and export of core cultural products grew from US$10.21 billion to US$14.39 billion, representing an average growth rate of 9% per year. During the same period, the import and export of cultural services grew from US$2.66 billion to US$5.42 billion, representing an average growth rate of 19.5% per year. In 2011, China’s cultural trade continued to show robust development, with the total import and export of core cultural products standing at US$19.89 billion, representing an increase of 21.4% over the previous year. Of this total, exports accounted for US$18.69 billion, an increase of 22.2% year-on-year; while imports totaled at US$1.21 billion, an increase of 10.4% year-on-year. This equated to a trade surplus of US$17.48 billion. The import and export of cultural services reached US$7.76 billion in 2011, registering a 36% increase over 2010 and a trade surplus of US$580 million. While acknowledging these achievements, we should be aware that the scale of China’s foreign cultural trade and the export of Chinese culture still need to be further increased. 

Cao Jianlin: During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, the Ministry of Science and Technology successfully developed and deployed a number of key technologies in digital media, forming an initial framework of independent technological applications to support service procedures for digital content in radio and television. By launching a number of key projects pertaining to the development of advanced telecommunication technologies, such as next generation internet, we have laid down stronger foundations for the expansion of transmission channels, the raising of transmission efficiency, and the emergence of new cultural industries. We have essentially mastered the core technologies pertaining to web content services for e-books and publications, and developed a service mode and application system framework that is suited to the publication, distribution, and sale of web content. On this basis, we have probed into a service system for e-book web content. Research results gained through a series of important studies on the protection of cultural relics have been widely applied in major projects and key initiatives. With the resolution of several key issues, challenges, and constraints pertaining to the development of cultural heritage undertakings, the application of science and technology in cultural heritage protection has been raised by a significant margin, and our capacity for independent innovation in the related industries has received a significant boost. The establishment of parks and centers for the integration of culture, science, and technology and a mechanism for inter-departmental coordination has helped to promote the exchange, interaction and integration of culture, science, and technology in regard to technology, personnel, and management.

Reporter: What important policies and measures will be introduced to further promote cultural reform and development?

Zhu Zhixin: In 2011, the Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee and the National Development and Reform Commission worked together with the relevant departments to formulate the National Outline Program for Cultural Reform and Development During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan Period. During the period of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, the National Development and Reform Commission will further increase its expenditure in an effort to develop a better public service system for culture. The focus of this effort will be placed on addressing the inadequate supply of public cultural products and promoting equal access to basic cultural services. To achieve this, we will adopt the following key measures: Working together with the related departments, we will launch the construction of libraries, cultural centers, and museums in prefecture-level cities throughout central and western China, whilst continuing to implement priority cultural projects for public benefit, such as access to radio and television broadcasts in all villages; the translation of radio and TV programs into ethnic minority languages; the production of radio and TV programs in ethnic minority languages; and the development of publishing in ethnic minority languages. By the end of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, we will strive to ensure that radio and television broadcasts have been brought to all households; that the rights of ethnic minorities to listen to broadcasts, watch television, and read books and publications in their own languages have been ensured; and that public cultural facilities of various types and grades are able to play an effective role in enriching the cultural lives of the public. Initiatives aimed at protecting cultural and natural heritage sites will be continued. By strengthening basic facilities for the protection of valuable cultural heritage, such as key cultural heritage sites under state protection, major ruins, cities, towns, and villages with famous historical and cultural sites, and state-level non-material cultural heritage, we will work to rationally utilize and effectively carry forward the fine cultural traditions of the Chinese nation. We will also continue to oversee the second phase of our plan to develop tourism themed around the history of the CPC. These efforts will involve the further improvement of basic facilities in the most iconic sites in the CPC’s history in order to build on the spirit that such sites embody and celebrate. On the other hand, we will actively promote the development of cultural industries. First, we will continue to regard the encouragement of cultural consumption as an important avenue for the growth of domestic demand, and engage in active efforts to foster markets for cultural consumption. We shall look into means of supporting cities in central and western China in building digital cinemas, widen channels for the sale and distribution of cultural products, and promote the development of platforms for diverse consumption. At the same time, we will expand consumer credit, standardize market prices, optimize the environment for consumption, and promote the rapid development of cultural consumption. Second, we will actively coordinate with the Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee and other departments in straightening out and standardizing the construction of industrial parks and zones in the cultural sector; take the lead in formulating policies and measures for the standardized development of large-scale theme parks; and explore policies for supporting cultural industries in order to promote the development of cultural industries with regional characteristics. Third, we will continue to encourage eligible cultural enterprises to secure finance by going public or issuing corporate bonds; encourage cultural enterprises to make investments overseas; make full use of domestic and international markets; encourage non-government capital to enter cultural industries; and encourage cultural companies to rapidly establish themselves as large-scale and competitive operations. 

Zhang Shaochun: In accordance with the overall planning and requirements of the central leadership, the Ministry of Finance has formulated Notice on Implementing the Guiding Principles of the Sixth Plenary Session of the Seventeenth Central Committee of the CPC in Ensuring Support for the Reform and Development of Culture with Public Finance. The notice mainly prescribes the following: First, public spending in culture should be increased and a sound mechanism for the steady growth of spending in culture should be established. Governments at all levels are required to increase their spending in culture. Meanwhile, channels for the funding of cultural initiatives should be expanded, a larger proportion of non-tax government revenue should be allocated to cultural initiatives, and expenditure on cultural undertakings using lottery ticket proceeds should be gradually increased. Second, the structure of public spending in culture should be optimized to ensure stronger funding for key cultural fields. Major public cultural products and services and cultural activities for public welfare should be incorporated into the public finance budget for regular expenditure, and the development of a framework for public services in culture should be supported. Special funds for the development of culture in rural areas should be established at the central, provincial, and municipal levels, so as to promote the accelerated integration of cultural initiatives in urban and rural areas. Funding for the protection of cultural heritage should be increased by a large margin in order to support the preservation of fine cultural traditions. A national foundation for cultural development should be established to encourage the creation of outstanding cultural products and guide the nurturing of talent. Support for the organization of cultural exchanges with foreign countries should be provided, the development of cultural centers and Confucius institutes abroad should be stepped up, and the international reach of major Chinese media organizations should be enhanced, so as to boost the dissemination and influence of Chinese culture. Third, new methods for the expenditure and management of government funds should be developed in order to achieve higher efficiency in the use of government funds. New modes for the delivery of public services in culture should be developed. In this effort, the coverage of government spending should be expanded, and preferential policies should be formulated, such as government procurement, project subsidization, dedicated funding, rewards as substitutes for subsidies, and donation supplements, in order to encourage the non-public sector to participate in the provision of public cultural products and services and donate to or launch cultural programs. New modes for supporting cultural industries with government funds should be developed. Through the provision of project subsidies, interest-subsidized loans, and premium subsidies, and the establishment of industrial investment funds, financial and other non-public capital should be encouraged to invest in cultural industries. New methods for the management of public spending should be developed. Improved mechanisms for encouraging, restraining, and managing the effectiveness of public spending should be established, and the provision of richer and better cultural products and services should be regarded as an important condition for increases in public spending. Fourth, various support policies should be implemented and improved, and efforts to reform and revamp cultural systems and mechanisms should be accelerated. The nature and functions of different cultural units should be rationally assessed, and specific supporting policies should be implemented on different levels and in different categories. The reform of non-profit cultural institutions should be steadily promoted, important news media such as Party papers and journals, radio stations, and TV stations should be assisted in improving their management and operational mechanisms, and the adoption of corporate management should be promoted in ordinary newspapers and journals for current affairs and key theatre troupes. Effective guarantees for the restructuring of profit-making cultural institutions as companies should be provided in regard to the disposal of assets and land use rights, distribution of income, social safety nets, the relocation and placement of personnel, public finance, and taxation. Policy support for the development of cultural industries should be enhanced in regard to public spending, taxation, and finance, and the related supporting policies should be extended for another five years in accordance with the requirements of the central government. Fifth, a sound system for the management of state-owned assets in culture should be established to constantly enhance the overall strength of cultural enterprises. An improved system for the management of state assets in culture that combines personnel management, affairs management, asset management, and orientation management should be developed, and supervisory management organizations and working mechanisms for state-owned assets in culture should be established. Methods for the supervision and management of state-owned assets in cultural enterprises should be formulated, basic work in asset management should be enhanced, and provisions for the performance management and remuneration of principals in state-owned cultural enterprises should be compiled. The management of state-owned assets during the restructuring of cultural institutions into companies should be enhanced, and the optimized allocation and structural readjustment of state-owned cultural assets should be promoted. The establishment of a working mechanism that provides for the seamless integration of the supervision and sponsorship system and the investor system of modern enterprises should be explored.

Liu Shiyu: During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, the People’s Bank of China will make further efforts to develop a multi-tiered and diverse framework of financial services that is geared towards the development of culture. By taking a variety of measures, the People’s Bank of China will do its part to support the great development and flourishing of socialist culture. Firstly, we will strengthen policy support and encourage financial institutions to provide more credit to cultural initiatives. By making a comprehensive use of monetary policy tools such as differential deposit-reserve ratios, refinancing, and rediscounts, we will strengthen our “window guidance” to encourage financial institutions to provide greater support to small and medium-sized enterprises, and especially small and medium-sized enterprises engaged in fields related to culture. At the same time, we will improve the way that we appraise the effectiveness of policy guidance on credit, and urge financial institutions to develop innovative credit products and service modes that are tailored to the demands of cultural enterprises. Secondly, we will promote financial innovation and work actively to provide a more diverse range of channels for the financing of cultural enterprises. The People’s Bank of China will enhance innovation in the financial market, improve a range of service modes such as credit promotion and regional credit financing, probe into trials for asset securitization in cultural industry projects, and promote the expansion of debit financing by cultural enterprises in the inter-bank bond market. Thirdly, we will promote the establishment of a multi-layered risk sharing and compensation mechanism for the provision of financial support to the cultural industry. We will promote the establishment of a risk compensation foundation for loans to cultural enterprises, and explore the possibility of using dedicated development funds to provide eligible cultural enterprises with loan discounts and premium discounts. Fourthly, we will collaborate with other departments to improve the external environment for our efforts to support the cultural industry through finance. We will promote the improvement of rules and regulations concerning registration for the pledging of intellectual property rights; make improvements in regard to the registration, circulation, trusteeship, appraisal, pledging, and disposal of intellectual property rights; cultivate credible intermediary service organizations such as third-party appraisal, rating, and consultation organizations; establish a sound secondary market for trade in intellectual property rights; and continuously improve external conditions for the securing of pledge loans with intellectual property rights.

Qiu Hong: The Ministry of Commerce will focus on three aspects: First, we will attach importance to the creation of cultural products in order to produce outstanding cultural works that meet the demands of the international market. Second, we will attach importance to the building of overseas sales channels and establish channels for Chinese culture to reach all corners of the world. We shall implement a diverse market strategy whereby companies under various forms of ownership are encouraged to take an active part in cultural promotion. Third, we will focus on the cultivation of talent, and nurture a number of export-oriented cultural enterprises. 

Cao Jianlin: By taking measures such as launching innovation projects of science and technology in cultural spheres with other departments, the Ministry of Science and Technology will give further play to the reinforcing role that culture, science and technology have on one another to promote innovations of science and technology in cultural spheres. Relying on national high-tech parks and national experimental zones for sustainable development, we will work with the relevant cultural departments to identify national demonstration centers for combining culture with science and technology, and promote the building of innovative environments in which culture, science, and technology are closely integrated. We shall further strengthen our contact and coordination with cultural departments, and work together with them to promote relevant initiatives.


(Originally appeared in Qiushi Journal, Chinese edition, No.7, 2012)

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