China’s Rise Is Rooted in the Superiorities of Its System

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 China’s Rise Is Rooted in the Superiorities of Its System

 Hu Angang

 China’s rise is rooted in the superiorities of its system. These superiorities are demonstrated as follows. First, the CPC has a powerful capacity to organize and mobilize the people. The most important thing is that it has the capacity to mobilize and fully integrate China’s resources so that they can serve the country’s development and the people. Second, the CPC has always adhered to the mass line, rooting itself among the people in order to make democratic decisions. This is manifested in the superiority of the socialist policy-making system with Chinese characteristics. This policy-making system is based on the mass line of the Party, that is from the masses, to the masses and putting into practice what has been learned from practice. On this basis, China has developed an efficient and flexible policy-making system that operates between the central government and the people. Third, the CPC has a capacity for implementation that is guided by its fundamental principle of serving the people. The Party is committed to standing with the overwhelming majority of the people, and this ensures that all institutions and localities can advance on the path of socialism and towards the strategic objectives of development. Fourth, China has adopted a strategy of “feeling for the stones to cross the river” as its fundamental approach to reform. This strategy ensures that reform is conducive to economic adjustment and to reform itself. The goal of reform is to realize modernization by and large, which is China’s overall objective in the primary stage of socialism. Promoting development and maintaining stability are preconditions for reform. Therefore, we must determine the intensity of our reforms in accordance with the pace of development and the level of stability, and then we can choose and adjust the tactics, strategies and steps of reform. 

(Originally appeared in People’s Forum, July 2011)

 The Inherent and Historical Laws of China’s Social System 

 Mei Ninghua

 Socialism with Chinese characteristics has emerged as the result of China’s social evolution in recent times. Therefore, its emergence is objectively and historically inevitable. The conditions of a country determine the system that is established in that country. For this reason, there is no single standard in regard to social systems. China’s social system has been independently established on the basis of China’s experiences in revolution, construction and development under the leadership of the CPC and by drawing on the achievements of other systems. However, no system is rigid; systems should be adjusted and changed in accordance with changes in social and historical conditions, so that they can adapt to social development. Therefore, in judging the superiorities of a social system, we need to adopt a dialectical, historical and developmental point of view. The establishment of a socialist system with Chinese characteristics demonstrates that China, through a process of trial and error, has gained mastery over the basic laws governing socialism with Chinese characteristics, and that it has developed specific institutions and systems in accordance with these laws. Socialism with Chinese characteristics safeguards both public interests and personal interests, balancing collective interests with personal interests, and short-term interests with long-term interests. It is also able to serve the overall interests of the nation whilst endowing society with a high level of vigor, providing a lasting driving force for China’s development. The mechanisms of socialism with Chinese characteristics, which are characterized by democratic centralism, give it the capacity to mobilize all economic, political and social resources and unite them under a single purpose. This allows it to rapidly and efficiently address the conflicts and issues that emerge in social development. 

(Originally appeared in Beijing Daily, September 6, 2011)

 The Institutional Basis for the China Model

 Ba Lan and Fan Hongyu

 No development model can be separated from its corresponding social and political systems. It is China’s system that has ensured China’s long-term, rapid and sustainable development in spite of its weak economic foundations and extremely uneven development. China’s experiences have shown that the success of the China model would not have been possible without socialism with Chinese characteristics. Socialism with Chinese characteristics has established the fundamental political prerequisites for the China model and ensured that it is socialist in character. The China model represents a modern socialist model that has been derived from traditional socialism in accordance with new changes in the modern world and China. This makes it a typical model. The key to the success of the China model is the integration of the basic principles of scientific socialism with actual conditions in China and the features of the times. The core of the China model is socialism with Chinese characteristics. Though the concept of socialism with Chinese characteristics has only emerged in recent years, to establish this system, the CPC has engaged in a tireless search, constantly engaging in innovation and taking Chinese conditions into full consideration. The formation of the China model has been paralleled by the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. In addition, the China model demonstrates the values of socialism with Chinese characteristics, representing a summary of the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics and its experiences.

(Originally appeared in Ningxia Daily, August 10, 2011)

 The Political Factors of the China Miracle

 Xin Xiangyang

 No attempt to unravel the secret of China’s development will succeed without an understanding of Chinese politics. Three political factors have allowed China to create a remarkable miracle. First, China’s political system is able to guarantee the implementation of long-term strategies and plans for development. The CPC has been implementing a three-step strategy to realize modernization ever since the launch of the reform and opening up drive over 30 years ago. Second, China’s political system is able to ensure the efficient development of the economy. China has formulated a socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics to provide an institutional foundation for its economic development. In addition, China has constantly improved its socialist political system to create political and social environments that are favorable for economic development. Third, China’s political system enables us to grasp major opportunities for development. The CPC has seized three major opportunities since the institution of reform and opening up policy more than 30 years ago. The first came with the judgment that peace and development were the themes of the times, which was put forward by Deng Xiaoping in the early 1980s. The second was the decision to establish the socialist market economy in the wake of the drastic changes that took place in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. This has allowed for the rapid development of China’s economy over the past 20 years. The third was the call to grasp and make good use of an important period of strategic opportunity for China in the first 20 years of the 21st century. This has boosted the sound and rapid development of China’s economy and society. 

(Originally appeared in Studies on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, No.4, 2011)

 Four Principles for Implementation of the Mass Line

 Wang Shaoguang

 The mass line, as a fine tradition of the CPC, is very democratic in nature. Putting the mass line into practice is the best way of administration. There are four principles for the implementation of the mass line. First, “from the masses” requires that leading cadres identify themselves with the masses, immerse themselves among the people, instead of standing above them, and never separate themselves from the people. Second, leading cadres must establish a correct attitude towards the people. To do this, they must engage with grassroots communities on a regular basis, and become closer to the people by eating, living, and working among them. Third, leading cadres must listen to the voice of the people and seek their opinions. Leading cadres should attach importance to carrying out surveys to learn more about local communities. They should maintain close contact with local people in order to gain a complete picture of both past and present conditions in communities. Only by doing this will they be able to identify problems and solve them. Fourth, leading cadres can also learn from the people through investigation and study. The people are not only the subjects of surveys, but also the participants, and it is in this way that our surveys differ from Western positivist surveys. This difference in methodology originates from the perception of the people’s historical role.

(Originally appeared in People’s Forum, August 22, 2011)

 The Secret Behind the China Miracle

 Guo Wanchao

 Only 7 economies in the world have ever managed to maintain an annual average growth rate of over 7% for more than 30 years. China is the largest of these 7 economies, and has maintained an average growth rate of over 9% over the space of more than 30 years. Moreover, China’s rapid development is still continuing. What is the secret behind China’s development? Most Western economists attribute China’s achievements to the nation’s market-oriented reforms. This opinion conforms to the traditional logic of Western mainstream economics. In other words, they believe that economic development is fundamentally determined by the optimal allocation of resources on the basis of the economic system. In China’s case, this explanation is obviously too simplistic. The fundamental reasons for the occurrence and continuation of China’s miracle are as follows. First, laborers are the most active and most revolutionary factor in productive forces. China has remained committed to putting people first, and has given full play to the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of the people. Second, China has fully integrated its social resources to maximize synergy and minimize the costs of development. This approach has enabled China to avoid problems caused by excessive dependence on regulation by market mechanisms. Third, China guides itself using Marxism as an evolving theory, and has developed systems and mechanisms that balance reform, development and stability. These are unique values that originate from the political, cultural and social realities of the country. As fundamental superiorities that put China ahead of the West, they will lay down the foundations for the Chinese model to ultimately become the optimal model. 

(Originally appeared in Chinese Social Sciences Today, December 8, 2011)

 A Leap in Socialism

 Sun Li

 The establishment of socialism with Chinese characteristics has not only enabled the Chinese nation to thrive, but has also made a valuable contribution to human development in general. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the product of the CPC’s comprehensive innovations in regard to socialist approaches, theories and systems. Moreover, this system is geared to the new characteristic of the times. The establishment of socialism with Chinese characteristics demonstrates that the socialist world has entered a new era where socialist countries can develop in accordance with their own characteristics rather than following a unified model. In the past, all socialist countries followed the Soviet model. Now, China is representing a new era in which socialism displays the characteristics of the nation in which it is being practiced. In an era where socialism is displaying prominent national characteristics and showing increasing signs of diversity, socialist movements are set to achieve renewed glory. Socialism with Chinese characteristics embodies not only Chinese characteristics but also profound contemporary features, representing an integration of the path, the theories, and the systems of socialism. Therefore, this system is both a complete remodeling of socialism and the most prominent representative of contemporary socialism. The socialist movement has gone from utopian socialism to scientific socialism and from a stage of theoretical research to a stage where theories are put into practice. The transition from the stage of following a unified model to the stage of developing in accordance with national characteristics represents another great leap in the history of the socialist movement. This great leap was created by the CPC.

(Originally appeared in Social Sciences Weekly, November 10, 2011)

 Chinese Wisdom Leads the Way Forward for Peaceful Development                           

 Wu Xinbo

 Chinese wisdom has always placed an emphasis on grasping the tide of the times and analyzing the international situation to provide a basis for the formulation of national strategies and policies. Economic reliance between countries has been deepened by the rapid progression of globalization in the 21st century. Under this backdrop, all countries are able to develop through equal and orderly participation in mutually beneficial international competition and cooperation, rather than following the old way of challenging the world order or other countries. In addition, as mutual links and interdependence between different countries have continued to deepen, countries now share more common interests and are thus more eager to cooperate with one another. On this basis, peace, cooperation and development have become the foundations of a country’s foreign policy strategies. China’s foreign policy strategy of peaceful development places an emphasis on actively pursuing peace, cooperation and development whilst posing no challenge to the existing world order. First, Chinese wisdom advocates that countries in the world should realize their national interests through cooperation and mutual benefit, as their interests have become interwoven amidst the background of globalization. This is the fundamental way to ensure the sustainable development of national interests. Second, Chinese wisdom attaches importance to safeguarding and developing common interests. In an age where countries are brought together by common interests, the nations of the world should not just pay attention to their own interests, but should also strive to expand these interests through concerted efforts. Third, China emphasizes that all countries should respect one another’s core interests and major concerns. Only in this way will countries be able to establish relationships founded on mutual trust and cooperation. 

(Originally appeared in Jiefang Daily, September 12, 2011)

 China’s Entry into the WTO: A Win for Everyone

 Wang Zhenzhong

 China’s decade in the WTO has not only changed China, but also the rest of the world, creating the mutually beneficial situation that everybody had hoped to see. China’s entry into the WTO has helped it to transform its way of thinking, providing new ideas in regard to the rule of law and intellectual property rights. In addition, the pace of China’s economic growth has also accelerated. In 2010, China’s GDP accounted for 9.3% of the overall output of the world economy, while its exports accounted for 10.4% of the world’s total, making it the largest exporter in the world. As a member of the WTO, China has also stepped up efforts to reform relevant systems. For example, China has replaced the approval system for the granting of foreign trade rights with a registration system, allowing for the development of diversified participation in foreign trade in line with the market economy. In addition, China’s entry into the WTO has allowed it to improve public well-being and accelerate its industrialization and urbanization. For instance, labor intensive processing industries, which represent the bulk of China’s foreign trade, have employed more than 80 million people in China. On the other hand, the rest of the world has also benefited from China’s economic development. China’s contribution to world GDP growth increased from 4.6% in 2003 to 14.5% in 2009, making it the largest contributor to world economic development and world trade growth. The world has also benefited from greater access to China’s markets. China’s commodity imports have grown nearly 5-fold since entering the WTO in 2001, representing an annual average growth rate of 20%. In addition, China has significantly decreased restrictions on foreign trade over the past decade, which has also been of benefit to the entire world. China’s overall import tariff level has reduced from 15.3% in 2001 to 9.8% in 2010. China has also implemented zero-tariff measures for 4,700 commodities imported from the 36 least developed countries that have diplomatic ties with China. These zero-tariff measures have encouraged the least developed countries in the world to export to China. As a result of these policies, China has been the largest export market for the least developed countries since 2008.

(Originally appeared in China Youth Daily, December 12, 2011)

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