A Great Miracle in Disaster Relief Created by the Socialist System

From: English Edition of Qiushi Journal Updated: 2011-09-21 08:48
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 Mankind is not yet able to prevent the occurrence of natural disasters. Despite this, a superior social system is able to reduce losses, save lives, protect property, and aid the rebuilding of homes to the largest possible extent. The Wenchuan Earthquake, which struck Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008, was the single most destructive earthquake to have occurred in the history of the People’s Republic of China. Other than its enormous magnitude, its sheer scope and the extreme difficulty involved in the relief effort were also unprecedented. Under the firm leadership of the CPC Central Committee, and with the full support of the whole Party, the army, and people throughout the nation, the people of Sichuan have not only risen above calamity to achieve overwhelming success in the rescue, recovery and reconstruction, but have also leapt forward to create a miracle of scientific development and rapid economic growth. The disaster area, which was once the scene of total devastation, has undergone nothing short of a total transformation, becoming a glowing testament to the superiority of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

 An aerial view of the newly rebuilt Beichuan county seat in Sichuan Province (March 28, 2011). Beichuan was devastated by the earthquake that hit Sichuan Province in 2008. Over the last three years, devastated towns have been reconstructed over an area of 130,000 square kilometers, and the homes of nearly 20 million people affected by the earthquake have been rebuilt, bringing vitality back to this once ravaged region. / Photo by Xinhua reporter Mo Dingyou

 I. The leadership of the Party was fundamental to this great miracle

 The CPC is the leading core in the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The leadership of the Party is the most salient political superiority of China’s socialist system. It is the fundamental guarantee of our capacity to cope with various risks, control various complex situations, and overcome various dangers and difficulties. The success of the people of Sichuan in combating the devastating Wenchuan Earthquake and rebuilding their homes is, more than anything else, attributable to the leadership of the CPC.

 The CPC Central Committee, with Comrade Hu Jintao as the General Secretary, took immediate steps to organize the rescue effort after the earthquake struck, and a command center to coordinate the rescue and relief effort was immediately established under the State Council. The leadership called on the whole Party, the army, and the people to mobilize in a desperate attempt to provide aid and relief and make sure to win the struggle. Amidst constant aftershocks and frequent dangers, the leaders of the Party and the government soon arrived in the disaster area to assess the situation and oversee the rescue operation personally. This leadership was effective in rapidly bringing the entire country together in a concerted effort to combat the disaster. 

 The CPC Sichuan Provincial Committee and the Sichuan Provincial Government triggered off the emergency response plan immediately after the earthquake struck. Overseeing the rescue effort from the front line, the Sichuan authorities were able to establish a command system at the provincial, prefectural, county, and township levels within just hours of the earthquake. The CPC committees at different levels in the disaster area showed stern resolve in the face of danger and gave full play to their leadership at that crucial time. Grassroots Party organizations moved into action quickly, organizing a rescue effort among the public and thereby giving full play to their role of bastion in the fight. More than 10,000 shock brigades composed of Party members spearheaded the rescue effort and gave their all on the front line. Their courage in the face of death and willingness to lay down their lives in order to save the lives of others fully demonstrated their exemplary vanguard role. Of the survivors pulled out from under the rubble, more than 80% were rescued by members of the public organized by grassroots Party organizations and Party cadres or by mutual assistance or independent efforts under their direction. The capacity of CPC organizations to take effective action and mobilize the people was fully demonstrated in the response to the disaster.

 Guided by a sense of loyalty to the Party, to the motherland, and to the people, the armed forces demonstrated their dauntless spirit in the face of unimaginable difficulties. Marching on foot, wading through rivers, and undertaking daring airdrops in extreme conditions, members of the armed forces rapidly penetrated the fault zone at Mount Longmen and scaled challenging terrain in a desperate attempt to save lives and bring aid to disaster stricken people. They gave full play to their role as a pillar of hope. The army and the people united in a series of successful endeavors to rescue and relocate disaster victims, clear roads, restore transport links, maintain hygiene, prevent the onset of disease, avert secondary disasters, and maintain social stability in the disaster area. In a miraculous feat that stunned the world, the relief operation was successful in preventing the occurrence of famine, large numbers of roaming refugees, epidemic diseases, and social turmoil in the disaster area. 

 The post-disaster reconstruction effort and initiatives to stimulate the economy in disaster stricken regions have progressed smoothly under the effective leadership of the CPC Central Committee and Party organizations at all levels. Authorities began to draw up reconstruction plans within just one week of the earthquake. We aimed to achieve a basic recovery within three years, economic revitalization within five years, and moderate prosperity in all aspects within ten years. At the same time, we also decided to accelerate the development of beautiful new homes and build a model for the economic development of China’s western regions. In the wake of the disaster, the CPC Central Committee demanded that the recovery and reconstruction effort should constitute an important aspect of China’s efforts to counter the international financial crisis, boost internal demand, and promote growth; that it should be used as a powerful engine to drive on the development of the whole country; and that efforts should be made to attain three-year targets within the space of two years. On this basis, we combined efforts to achieve functional recovery with efforts to promote leap-frog development, and gave particular emphasis to the reconstruction of urban and rural housing, infrastructure, industries, urban areas, culture, ecological environment, and homes in the spiritual sense. Meanwhile, by seizing on every opportunity to speed up the pace of development, we were able to essentially complete our three-year reconstruction tasks in the space of just two years. Sichuan’s economy soon rebounded from its lowest point to enter a phase of accelerated development. The whole province ushered in a phase of unprecedented development, as the disaster area underwent a thorough-going transformation. Sichuan’s economy grew by an average of 13.7% per year during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, and the pace and quality of development during these five years surpassed any other period since the launch of the reform and opening up drive. Moreover, Sichuan’s economy went on to achieve a record growth rate of 15.1% in 2010, making it the eighth largest regional economy in the country.

 II. Putting people first is the core concept in creating the great miracle

 Putting people first and governing for the people are core political philosophies of the CPC. Under the guidance of these philosophies, we dedicated ourselves to putting the lives and the wellbeing of the people first throughout the bitter rescue attempt and the arduous rebuilding process. Never in the global history of disaster relief has this philosophy been demonstrated to such a sublime level. 

 So long as there was even the faintest glimmer of hope, no effort was spared to save lives during the rescue operation. Indeed, it was this spirit that allowed us to save 83,988 people from the ruins. Following the rescue, our attentions turned to the question of resettlement, which then became our number one priority. During the initial resettlement phase, we were able to provide emergency settlement for 15 million people within the space of just 10 days. Within three months, we had managed to provide temporary settlement for 12 million people from 5.3 million families that had been left homeless by the disaster. As we entered the recovery and reconstruction phase, our commitment to putting the livelihood of the people first allowed us to rapidly improve public welfare programs and assurance capabilities in the disaster area. After one year, damaged houses belonging to 3.55 million families had been repaired and reinforced; after one and a half years, farm houses for 1.5 million families had been rebuilt; and after two years, housing for 250,000 families in urban areas had been rebuilt. Scientific planning was adopted to guide scientific reconstruction throughout the rebuilding campaign. This involved stressing the importance of integrating projects for the livelihood of the people with industrial development, combining quality and speed in reconstruction, and giving prominence to regional styles, ethnic features and cultural continuity. In particular, the concept of planning was introduced into rural reconstruction for the first time. This led to improvements in village layout, village planning and home designs, and thereby allowed us to showcase the look of a new socialist countryside. By resolving the practical difficulties faced by the people in the disaster area, such as employment, heating in the winter, and aiding families in particular difficulty, we managed to maintain a stable and orderly social environment to underpin the smooth progress of the reconstruction effort. Temporary land transfers and non-local settlement allowed us to address the practical difficulties of people who had lost their land in the disaster. Specific relief and settlement arrangements were adopted for special groups, which saw the settlement of children, elderly and disabled citizens who lost their families in the earthquake, and people disabled due to injuries sustained in the earthquake. We also launched a repopulation campaign in which 5,422 families who had lost children in the disaster were granted permission and assistance to give birth again. As of the present, 2,864 babies have been born as a part of this initiative. The principle of putting people first embodies the glory of human nature. By adhering to this principle, we were able to ease the minds of the people, maintain social stability, and thereby create a harmonious and positive atmosphere for the post-disaster reconstruction effort.

 The core of socialist democracy is the position of the people as the masters of their own country. We were able to launch a highly efficient and rapid rescue operation and achieve both quality and pace in post-disaster reconstruction by adhering to an organic integration of the leadership of the Party, the position of the people as the masters of their own country, and the rule of law. This is a glowing testament to the fundamental attribute of a socialist country, namely, all power belongs to the people. After the earthquake, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, in line with public opinion, adjusted the 2008 central budget to include a reconstruction fund which was designed to ensure the availability of funds for the rescue and rebuilding efforts. The State Council promulgated four laws and regulations, such as the Regulations Regarding the Recovery and Reconstruction of Wenchuan after Earthquake, which provided sound legal and policy guidelines for the post-disaster reconstruction.

 We strived for public satisfaction throughout the rebuilding campaign, and took assertive steps to solicit public opinion and suggestions before making major decisions. Adhering to the principles of equality, openness and transparency, we ensured that the people had the right to be informed, the right to make their own choices, the right to be involved in administration, and the right to monitor the actions of the government. In important aspects of the rebuilding process, such as the formulation of plans, the rebuilding of housing, the special supply of building materials, quality control, industrial restructuring and social stability, the people were able to act independently and at their own free will, exercise a high-degree of self-dependence and initiative, participate in and supervise the entire rebuilding process, and fully exert their role as their own “masters” with the guidance and help of the government. This way, the people were able to become participants in the decision making process, implementers of the reconstruction campaign, supervisors in grassroots administration, and beneficiaries of post-disaster reconstruction.

 III. The reform and opening up drive is the impetus of the great miracle

 Reform and opening up is a fundamental national policy for the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is a path that must be taken if we are to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. China’s attempts to reform and open up over the past 30 years have liberated and developed productive forces, injected vigor and vitality into the country, and led to significant increases in China’s comprehensive strength. This has given us the strength and the material foundation needed to overcome a disaster as devastating as the Wenchuan Earthquake.

 The public sector played a principal role in the response to the Wenchuan Earthquake. In the immediate wake of the disaster, the government rapidly assembled hundreds of thousands of rescue and relief workers, allocated tens of billions of yuan in relief funds, and dispatched millions of tons of food, clothing, bedding and tents in addition to urgently needed materials such as fuel oil, coal and engineering equipment to the disaster area. This rapid response played a crucial role in securing more time for the rescue and helped to boost the efficiency of the entire rescue efforts. Large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises played a central role in the effort to restore road and railway links, the race to get telecommunications and power back online, and in the scramble to remove the threat posed by rivers that had been dammed by landslides in the earthquake. In China, all land belongs to either the state or to collectives. The huge superiorities of this system became evident during the reconstruction process, as it allowed us to readjust land planning schemes and ensure the launch and rapid progression of various reconstruction projects after the earthquake. The private sector also played a highly active role in the relief operation. Large numbers of private enterprises made important contributions to the relief effort in response to the calls of the central government, continuing the Chinese tradition of supporting the weak and helping those in difficulty.

 Openness was a prominent feature of the rescue and reconstruction process following the Wenchuan Earthquake. News of the earthquake was made public straight away, and daily press conferences were held to keep the public updated on the latest figures and developments. Adopting an open stance, the Chinese government welcomed the arrival of search and rescue teams from Russia, Japan, South Korea and Singapore and from regions such as Hong Kong and Taiwan. China also accepted medical teams from eight countries and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan. We have adhered to the principle of openness throughout the course of post-disaster reconstruction, bringing together wisdom from around the country and even the whole world in order to ensure the highest standards in our planning, design and construction. We have also subscribed to dialectical thinking, sought to renew our way of thinking, made attempts to turn difficulties into opportunities, pursued a strategy of openness and cooperation, striven to become a model of openness for western regions, and actively accommodated the relocation of industries from central and eastern China. With an unprecedented level of openness, we have witnessed the rapid growth of our IT, auto-making, petroleum, natural gas, and chemical industries since the earthquake. Opening up to the outside world has unleashed a wave of energy that is driving on the development of Sichuan Province by leaps and bounds. Post-earthquake Sichuan has become the frontier for opening up the western region and one of the most attractive areas for investment in China.

 The socialist market economy was the basis for our disaster relief and reconstruction efforts. We have identified reconstruction as a means of development. Seeking to promote development through reconstruction, we utilized the strengths of the socialist market economy to solve one difficulty after another. We approached the issue of financing for the reconstruction in line with the principle of integrating government regulation and market forces. On this basis, we designed an investment mechanism around the principles of government guidance, market operation, and private participation, which allowed us to attract enough private finance to make up for the trillion yuan shortfall in reconstruction funds. We also designed a mechanism to guarantee the supply of factors of production in which priority was given to the supply of building materials for farm houses and key efforts were made to ensure the availability of supplies necessary for the resumption of production and for the manufacture of materials to be used in the reconstruction. Every effort was made to ensure a stable supply of coal, electricity, oil, gas and transportation resources for both enterprises and the public. These initiatives helped to maintain stability and order in the market. We also made efforts to link post-disaster recovery to reforms aimed at planning urban and rural development on a coordinated basis. In line with the ideas and methods of these reforms, we integrated initiatives to rebuild urban and rural housing into our efforts to re-develop industries and promote the recovery of tourism and culture. This not only allowed us to ease the financial strain involved in the rebuilding of housing and develop new types of urban and rural formation, but also helped us to develop the replacement industries from the perspective of the disaster victims. We also regarded the reconstruction as a chance to achieve a developmental leap forward. To overcome the influence of both the earthquake and the international financial crisis, we took action to readjust the structure of our productive forces and accelerate the transformation of the pattern of economic development. In doing so, we managed to create ideal conditions for the rapid development of the disaster area on the foundations of reconstruction. 

 IV. The country-wide system represents a unique superiority for creating the great miracle

 The superiority of China’s socialist system is fully embodied in China’s ability to rally the entire nation behind a major undertaking. Under the firm leadership and correct direction of the CPC Central Committee, China was able to pool the efforts and wisdom of the entire country behind the rescue efforts. Within an incredibly short period of time, we were able to assemble and effectively allocate huge amounts of human resources, material resources and financial resources to disaster stricken areas, fully revealing the superiority of China’s socialist system in the mobilization and effective organization of resources. Fact has proved that China’s unique leadership system is highly conducive to the organization of coordinated rescue efforts on a national scale; that its unique administrative system is highly effective in integrating forces and pooling resources in response to emergences; and that its unique economic system is able to boost national strength, ensure the wellbeing of the people, and provide a material basis on which various challenges and tests can be met head-on. Moreover, China’s unique ideological and cultural system has proved itself highly effective in bringing the people together in the face of unparalleled adversity, while its unique military system is extremely effective in rapidly mobilizing the armed forces as both a dominant force and a rapid response team in the fight against major disasters.

 The implementation of point-to-point aid initiatives was an innovative move that allowed the entire nation to contribute to the reconstruction effort. Point-to-point aid is a new model for post-disaster reconstruction that has been created by China. On the 37th day after the earthquake, the central government demanded that “each county heavily inflicted by the disaster should be aided by a province.” In total, 18 provinces (municipalities) have provided active support to key reconstruction projects in 18 heavily inflicted counties. At present, almost all of the 3,880 projects undertaken by these supporting provinces (municipalities) have been completed, representing a total combined investment of more than 76 billion yuan so far. In addition, the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions have also supported the construction of 295 projects in affected areas. Moreover, the 21 cities (prefectures) in Sichuan Province, with the exception of six cities (prefectures) that were heavily damaged in the earthquake themselves, have each provided dedicated support to one heavily inflicted town or township in the province. The practice of point-to-point aid has accelerated the reconstruction process and effectively promoted economic cooperation, cultural exchanges, the merging of ideas, and ethnic unity between China’s eastern, central and western regions on a major scale. It has proven to be a successful means of gradually promoting common prosperity in which those who have already attained wealth provide aid to those who have not.

 The people of Sichuan have responded to disaster relief with gratitude and by demonstrating the courage to forge ahead. They have carried forward the fine tradition of self-reliance and resilience, never once standing aside, depending on others, nor watching on in anticipation. They have forged ahead in the face of adversity and worked to rebuild their homes and their lives with their own hands. A wave of energy surged throughout the disaster area and the people yelled out: “so long as we are alive and able, nothing can defeat us,” and “rely on our own strength, work our own sweat, and do the things that we are supposed to do.” All of a sudden, the spirit of resilience and inner-strength in the face of hardship could be felt almost everywhere.

 V. The core values are the spiritual props behind the great miracle 

 The core socialist value system is an advanced socialist culture and a mental impetus behind the coordinated development of the economy and society. The people of different ethnic groups in China are brought together by their common belief in socialism. With unbreakable resolve, they stand as one throughout difficulties and hardships, and seek common development for a better future.

 The heroic Chinese people have a national tradition of coming to the joint aid of those in need and uniting together as an impregnable whole. They have displayed the lofty sentiment of uniting as one and advancing hand in hand under the banner of socialism. Party cadres put the lives, wellbeing and the happiness of the people in the disaster area first. By devoting themselves to others, they demonstrated a selfless contribution to “family” in the greater sense of the word to the neglect of their own. The people affected by the disaster stood on their own feet and remained strong in the face of disaster, never waiting for aid to reach them. This was a sign of their resilience and inner-strength. Adopting a national perspective, various provinces and municipalities made all-out efforts to provide disaster stricken areas with point-to-point support. These were moving acts guided by a great love of humankind. More than one million volunteers flocked to the worst hit areas in the immediate wake of the earthquake. Through their concern for the disaster victims they have carried forward the fine tradition of fraternity and mutual aid among the Chinese people. The selfless donations and contributions from our compatriots in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan as well as overseas Chinese demonstrated the solidarity that brings Chinese nationals from all over the world together. The incredible spirit that defined the relief effort is a monument to the agreement between national spirit and the spirit of the times. It was a refinement of the core socialist value system.

 The great love of the motherland has deeply moved the people of Sichuan. The entire disaster area has been swept by a wave of gratitude towards the Party, the motherland, the people, and the army. Moreover, the ideological awareness, horizons, and mental outlook of both cadres and members of the public in the disaster area have been propelled forward exponentially. In the wake of the major earthquake that hit Yushu, Qinghai Province, the devastating landslide that occurred in Zhugqu, Gansu Province, and the serious drought that threatened Shandong Province, the people of Sichuan Province did all in their power to aid the people in need. As their hearts flocked to the victims in the affected areas, they used their actions to repay the entire country for the love and support that they were given after the Wenchuan Earthquake. The spirit of the relief effort fully displayed the great vigor of the core socialist value system. In this sense, this spirit is an immense form of wealth in itself. The disaster areas in Sichuan Province, which have regained new life, have become symbols that teach people about patriotism, the core socialist values, and national solidarity and progress. They are also windows through which the vigor of China’s mode and path of development can be seen. We shall devote great efforts to carrying forward the incredible spirit that was demonstrated during the course of the rescue and relief effort. In doing so, we will further ensure that the predominant tone of our times is support for the Party, for the socialism, for reform and opening up, for the motherland, for the people of all ethnic groups, and for the people’s army.

 In the three years that have passed since the devastating Wenchuan Earthquake, the people of Sichuan have marched out of sorrow and toward a string of epic successes in disaster relief, reconstruction, and scientific development. It is fair to say that their achievements are miraculous enough to leave the world stunned. This was made possible because we have a strong Party, a strong country, a great nation, and an unparalleled socialist system.

(Originally appeared in Qiushi Journal, Chinese edition, No.9, 2011)


Note:Author: Secretary of the CPC Sichuan Provincial Committee

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 The Wenchuan Earthquake

 The counties of Wenchuan and Beichuan in Sichuan Province were hit by a magnitude 8.0 earthquake at 14:28:04 CST (China Standard Time) on May 12, 2008. The overall impact caused by the earthquake was larger than any other earthquake to have occurred in the history of the People's Republic of China. It was the third most powerful earthquake to have occurred since the founding of the PRC, surpassed in magnitude only by the earthquake that hit Medog, Tibet (8.5) on August 15, 1950 and the earthquake that occurred at Kunlun Mountain (8.1) in 2001. The area directly devastated by the earthquake was as large as 100,000 square kilometers.

 The Wenchuan Earthquake left 69,227 people dead and 374,643 injured. In addition, 17,923 people have been listed as missing. Direct economic losses reached 845.2 billion yuan. Sichuan Province was the hardest hit, bearing 91.3% of the total losses, while the provinces of Gansu and Shaanxi accounted for 5.8% and 2.9% respectively. No other earthquake in the history of the People's Republic of China has been as destructive or as widespread in scope as the Wenchuan Earthquake. 

 Parameters: Time: 14:28:04 CST May 12, 2008. Latitude: 30.986°N. Longitude: 103.364°E. Depth: 14km. Magnitude: 8.0 on the Richter Scale, moment magnitude 7.9. Max. intensity: XI. Location of the epicenter: Yingxiu Town, Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province. 

 Cause: The direct cause of the earthquake was the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau owing to the subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate. Eastward movement of substances in the plateau had been met with resistance from the rigid plate under the Sichuan Basin on a long-term basis. This led to a build-up of energy along Mount Longmen tectonic zone on the eastern fringe of the plateau. The sudden release of this energy in the Beichuan-Yingxiu area of Mount Longmen resulted in a fault earthquake of the thrust, dextrorotary and extrusion type. The massive Sichuan earthquake occurred in a zone of the crust which was shifting from fragility to tenacity. The depth of the focus was 10-20 kilometers. The earthquake was made even more destructive by its relatively long duration.

 Type: Wenchuan Earthquake was a fault earthquake of the thrust, dextrorotary and extrusion type.

 Depth: The Wenchuan Earthquake was relatively shallow, with the focus being about 10-20 kilometers deep. This made the earthquake extremely destructive.

 Reconstruction Completed One Year in Advance

 Following the massive earthquake that hit Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008, the CPC Sichuan Provincial Committee and the Sichuan Provincial Government effectively promoted post-disaster reconstruction in accordance with the overall plan for reconstruction sanctioned by the State Council. The effort was based around the principles of “making plans first, giving priority to the livelihood of the people, rebuilding scientifically, and showing respect for nature.” By the end of September 2010, the 3-year reconstruction scheme had essentially been completed one year in advance. By the end of April, 2011, 38,803 of the 41,130 reconstruction projects planned by the state had been completed, accounting for 94.34% of the overall reconstruction scheme. Projects completed so far represent a total investment of 885.153 billion yuan, accounting for 92.37% of the total planned investment. The reconstruction effort following the Wenchuan Earthquake has been an overwhelming success: We have ensured housing and employment for almost all families, made sure that everyone has access to social security, rebuilt infrastructure to a higher standard, promoted economic development, and made significant improvements to the ecological environment in the area. The success of the reconstruction campaign has changed the face of the disaster area forever. These great achievements have demonstrated the superiority of the socialist system, the effectiveness of point-to-point aid as a means of support, and the fine Chinese tradition of coming to the joint aid of those in need. This achievement is a further testament to the powerful cohesion of the Chinese nation.

 In an urgent notice issued by the Ministry of Civil Affairs on May 22, 2008, Beijing and other 20 provinces and municipalities were designated to provide dedicated support to disaster stricken counties in Sichuan Province, with each province being responsible for the provision of aid to a certain county. According to the notice, these provinces were asked to provide interim shelter for disaster victims, solve the basic needs of the people in the disaster area, help to rebuild housing and infrastructure, aid economic recovery and development, and provide affected areas with economic cooperation and technical guidance. 

 The support arrangement was as follows: Shanghai supported Dujiangyan City, Hunan supported Pengzhou City, Heilongjiang supported Wenjiang District, Shanxi supported Pixian County, Inner Mongolia supported Dayi County, Hebei supported Chongzhou City, Jiangsu supported Mianzhu City, Beijing supported Shifang City, Liaoning supported Anxian County, Shandong supported Beichuan County, Jilin supported Pingwu County, Henan supported Jiangyou City, Guangdong supported Wenchuan County, Fujian supported Lixian County, Tianjin supported Maoxian County, Anhui supported Songpan County, Jiangxi supported Xiaojin County, Guangxi supported Heishui County, Zhejiang supported Qingchuan County, Hubei supported Hanyuan County, and Hainan supported Baoxing County.

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