The Three Things That China Will Not Do in Its Development

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 The Three Things That China Will Not Do in Its Development

 Le Yucheng

 The “Chinese model” currently under heated discussion is mainly a matter of wording in Western academic circles, which objectively reflects the concern of the international community about China’s development. The fact that discussion about development models in the world has become so heated actually reflects a truth, viz. civilizations are diverse and therefore there is no single development path or model that is valid everywhere. On the issue of development models, there are three things China will not do. China will not copy, will not object and will not export. By “will not copy” we mean that we believe that China should first of all consider its historical and cultural traditions and conditions in the country in determining everything, seek truth from facts and work out a development path that best suits the country by determining what actually works through actual experience rather than resorting to dogmatism. China has been doing this during the 30 years since the institution of the reform and opening up policy. By “will not object” we mean that, instead of objecting to development paths different from our own, we will take into account all the experiences and lessons of other countries in their development and the fruits of the civilizations of all countries. By “will not export” we mean that we respect the development paths independently chosen by other countries and will not impose our value concepts and development model on others. The idea that when China becomes strong it will necessarily “rule the world” is groundless. It is a requirement of the times for China to follow a road of peaceful development that is different from the path followed by the traditional big powers in history, and China’s development path must be determined by the historical and cultural traditions of China.

(From Global magazine, No. 3, 2010) 

 The Key to the “China Miracle” Is China’s Political System

 Chen Hongtai

 The great achievements of New China are referred to overseas as “the China miracle.” However, many people outside China do not understand the secret to “the China miracle.” In fact, the key to the China miracle is in the country’s political system. China’s economic and social development cannot be separated from its political development, and the success of China’s reform and opening up policy has written a new chapter in the democratic modernization of a large developing country. The reform and opening policy has first of all given the Chinese people more economic and social freedoms and led to the realization of more independence in their economic and social rights. More democracy in the political arena has led to more economic and social freedoms and this has brought about fundamental changes in the relationship between politics and economics in China since the institution of the reform and opening policy. The development of democratic politics in China must help promote China’s modernization, continuously satisfy the need for reform created by economic and social development and conform to the continual increase in the demand and desire of the people to participate in political affairs and have their rights and interests guaranteed. This is the basic lesson and the consensus formed in China during more than 30 years of carrying out reform and opening up and developing democratic politics. This consensus may also be called “China’s lesson from developing democratic politics” or “a socialist road of political development with Chinese characteristics.”

(From Beijing Daily, February 1, 2010)

 The Reform and Opening Up Policy Has Considerably Reduced Institutional Costs       

 Zhou Qiren

 What has enabled China to strengthen its global competitiveness so rapidly? The prevalent view is that China is taking advantage of its huge and cheap labor force. There are quite a few countries and regions in the world, however, with cheaper labor than China, so why haven’t they been able to substantially improve their competitiveness? An analysis of the institutional variables affecting China’s economic growth shows that reform and opening up has greatly reduced the operating cost of the Chinese economic system as well as the operating cost of all types of economic organizations, which in turn has stimulated people to work harder, improve management and start businesses and encouraged the government of China, with its large population, to greatly increase investment in human resources, thus strengthening the overall competitiveness of Chinese products, turning this largest of developing countries with its ancient civilization into the fastest growing economy in the world, and changing the pattern of the global economy. Reforms have given the Chinese people the incentive to pursue economic development, and opening up to the outside world has reduced the cost of educating the Chinese people. Greatly reducing institutional costs is the real secret to the Chinese miracle.

(From the philosophy and social sciences edition of Peking University Journal, No.1, 2010)

 Characteristics of Chinese Culture    

 Ye Xiaowen

 Both Western countries and China believe in “taking into consideration the whole world,” but the most common view in the West is the “world view” of homogenous global unilateralism, while the Chinese view is “to understand yourself, discover your own form of beauty, appreciate the beauty of others and recognize that everyone has their own beauty.” The West follows a “three-point” cultural export strategy consisting of Hollywood films, potato chips and computer chips (all known as “chips” in Chinese). Major American films control people’s entertainment horizons, potato chips control people’s stomachs and computer chips control people’s creativity and threaten people’s cultural security. It is “a triple conflict civilization” that espouses competition among individuals, strife between different communities and wars between nations. The Chinese cultural ideal, however, is “a public-minded spirit prevailing in society.” It is a “triple tranquility civilization,” that pursues good relations in the family, harmony in society and peace in the world. The Chinese culture is no longer an ignorant, backward, failing, fragile culture as people in the West viewed China starting in the 20th century. Still less is Chinese culture a conflict-happy, expansionist culture as viewed by people who espouse the “China threat” theory. The Chinese idea of “go global” does not indicate a “belligerent” China, but a China capable of collaborating with all countries of the world, a China that stresses amity, harmony and peace, a China in which people come first, people care for each other and there is a spirit of tolerance, a China that cares for the world and is broad-minded. China is a country of civilized people constantly working to improve themselves. 

(From People’s Daily, overseas edition, January 28, 2010)

 Focus of Shanghai World Expo Is Low-Carbon Economy

 Li Guangming et al.

 The theme of the Shanghai World Expo is “Better City, Better Life” and the Expo attempts to answer questions such as: “What kind of city will make for better living?” “What kind of concepts and practices in living will result in better cities?” “What sort of urban development model will be best for the earth?” The contextual structure of the theme of Shanghai World Expo is laid out by time and distance. The core idea is that cities are created by man and continuously evolve and grow into an organic system. People are the most vigorous and most creative cells in this organic system. The lifestyles of the people and the form and development of the city are closely related. The process of urbanization is accelerating, and interaction between the organic system of cities and the biosphere of the earth and the system of resources is constantly increasing in breadth and depth. The three organic systems of people, cities and the earth are closely linked, and this relationship is present throughout the process of urban development. These three elements are gradually becoming a single indivisible entity. The Shanghai World Expo focuses on cities with the theme of “Better City, Better Life.” The Expo covers future trends in urban development, balanced social and economic development of cities, and human society and nature in harmony. It fully embodies the idea of low carbon living as a way to cope with climate change and reduce emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. The Expo features a combination of various sciences and technologies, shows how human society can use science and technology to make the earth a better place in line with the theme of “Better City, Better Life” and fully demonstrates how advances in science and technology can support the development of low carbon cities.

(From Science, No.1, 2010)

 New Revelations from the Economic Success of China

 Chen Ping

 China’s rapid economic development has presented “new revelations” to the developing countries as well as an “immense amount of perplexity” for the study of economics in developed countries. One, the healthy development of a mixed economy has far surpassed that of an economy with total privatization. The socialist market economy of China is a mixed economy with balanced development. The creativity of private enterprises, the competitive edge of state-owned enterprises and the learning abilities of non-profit institutions constitute a stable foundation for a socialist economy. Two, the role of the government as we have redefined works far better than Adam Smith’s “invisible hand.” Through macroeconomic regulation and cooperation among regions, the central government has greatly reduced the risk of innovation in both domestic and foreign funded enterprises and made China’s adjustment of the economic structure the most effective in the world. Three, the market provides the means to participate in international competition, but does not determine development strategy. Four, China has created a new way of providing democratic checks and balances in a market economy. The experiments and innovations undertaken from top to bottom over the past 30 years has enabled China to rapidly tear down the old and establish the new and achieve social progress that far exceeds that of the developed countries of the West. This has enabled China to develop a model for social reform that provides opportunities, features cooperation and relies on experimentation. Five, China has developed a new model to ensure fairness. Chinese culture stresses the social consequences of justice and this shows that Chinese culture is full of vitality because it stresses an overall approach.

(From Chinese Social Sciences Today, January 7, 2010)

 The Current Crisis Was a Shock to the Capitalist System and Its Core Values 

 Wei Jianhua

 The traditional economic crisis is directly manifested as a surplus in production in relation to insufficient consumption, but the present economic crisis has been manifested as consumption using borrowed money or excessive consumption. Bankers have designed financial derivatives that allow virtual trade in commodities to help capitalists solve the problem of surplus production while bringing bankers a share in exorbitant profits, resulting in large scale consumption on borrowed funds. The essence of this kind of “debt-carrying economic model” is still insufficient effective demand. Consumption on credit has led to a false sense of prosperity and covered up the imbalance between growth of capitalist production capacity and insufficient effective demand among workers. This crisis erupted in the United States, the core of the global capitalist economic system. The crisis has taken on several forms, including a crisis in production, a financial crisis, an institutional crisis, a crisis in Western culture and ideology, and a global crisis and forcefully demonstrates the profound inherent problems with neoliberalism based mainly on capitalist privatization and the unsustainability of its development model. This crisis has dealt the capitalist system a heavy blow, shaken the core values of capitalism and will inevitably have a far reaching effect on the global economy and political reform.

(From Guangming Daily, January 29, 2010)

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